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How to Design Automobile Wiring Harness Layout?

Jun. 06, 2024

The wiring harness is the main body of the automobile circuit. Without the wiring harness, there is no automobile circuit. The automobile wiring harness becomes basically the same in form. With the increase of automobile functions and the widespread application of electronic control technology, there are more and more electrical parts and wires. As more and more, the wire harness becomes thicker and heavier. Therefore, advanced cars have introduced CAN bus configuration and adopted multiple transmission systems.

The basic classification of the vehicle wiring harness

In the wiring harness of the whole vehicle, we can divide the wiring harness into several parts: front cabin wiring harness assembly, engine wiring harness assembly, gearbox wiring harness assembly, instrument wiring harness assembly, floor wiring harness assembly, door wiring harness assembly ( Four different doors), roof wiring harness assembly, trunk wiring harness assembly, battery positive and negative wiring harness assembly, airbag wiring harness assembly. Strive to achieve simple structure, convenient disassembly and assembly, beautiful layout, and good fixed protection. At the same time, try to use modular design in the wiring harness to reduce loops. In addition, in the design of automobile wiring harnesses, local wiring harnesses need to be in the form of patch cords, depending on the specific model.

Automobile Wiring Harness

Issues to be considered in the overall layout of the wiring harness and documents that need to be input and output

The overall layout of the wiring harness should be involved in the P2 stage of the vehicle. The required input documents include the configuration table of the electrical components of the vehicle, the two-dimensional layout drawing of the electrical components, the outline drawing of the vehicle, and the layout structure of the vehicle, such as the powertrain. The basic situation of the layout (horizontal, vertical, front, rear, etc.), left or right rudder. Understand the functional attributes and special requirements of the electrical components of the vehicle (including the location requirements between other components, and electrical and electronic characteristics requirements). And the assembly process of the whole vehicle. And based on the above basic data, the high-temperature area, vibration area, and strong electromagnetic interference area of the whole vehicle (such as ignition coil, wiper motor, etc.) are obtained, and these preliminary conclusions are applied to the overall layout of the wiring harness.

After fully analyzing all the above data, proceed to the overall layout of the wiring harness. The wiring harness is required to have a simple structure and easy disassembly and assembly. Initially connect the main electrical and electronic components and determine the approximate wiring harness division method. In the program design stage, we need to make at least two programs for analysis and review. After the plan is formed, discuss the feasibility of the plan with the general layout and body department to determine whether the car body can make the structure or form required by the wiring harness to meet the requirements of the wiring harness. Then, it is determined that two or more programs are being analyzed and reviewed, and the main programs and alternative programs are determined.


In this process, it is necessary to fully consider the direction of the wire harness, vias, fixation, and temperature vibration, etc., and consider all possible situations as much as possible in the early design stage to avoid subversive errors in the future. This stage is very important and requires full discussion with relevant departments and engineers to clarify input and output information. Solve all major problems that may arise in the future.

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